Caution: You are browsing the legacy 1.x part of this website.
This version of symfony is not maintained anymore. If some of your projects still use this version, consider upgrading.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License license.

Master Symfony2 fundamentals

Be trained by SensioLabs experts (2 to 6 day sessions -- French or English).
trainings.sensiolabs.com

Discover the SensioLabs Support

Access to the SensioLabs Competency Center for an exclusive and tailor-made support on Symfony
sensiolabs.com

Day 19: Internationalization and Localization

Jobeet
Support symfony!
Buy this book
or donate.
Buy Jobeet from amazon.com

Yesterday, we finished the search engine feature by making it more fun with the addition of some AJAX goodness.

Today, we will talk about Jobeet internationalization (or i18n) and localization (or l10n).

From Wikipedia:

Internationalization is the process of designing a software application so that it can be adapted to various languages and regions without engineering changes.

Localization is the process of adapting software for a specific region or language by adding locale-specific components and translating text.

As always, the symfony framework has not reinvented the wheel and its i18n and l10n supports is based on the ICU standard.

User

No internationalization is possible without a user. When your website is available in several languages or for different regions of the world, the user is responsible for choosing the one that fits him best.

note

We have already talked about the symfony User class during day 13.

The User Culture

The i18n and l10n features of symfony are based on the user culture. The culture is the combination of the language and the country of the user. For instance, the culture for a user that speaks French is fr and the culture for a user from France is fr_FR.

You can manage the user culture by calling the setCulture() and getCulture() method on the User object:

// in an action
$this->getUser()->setCulture('fr_BE');
echo $this->getUser()->getCulture();

tip

The language is coded in two lowercase characters, according to the ISO 639-1 standard, and the country is coded in two uppercase characters, according to the ISO 3166-1 standard.

The Preferred Culture

By default, the user culture is the one configured in the settings.yml configuration file:

# apps/frontend/config/settings.yml
all:
  .settings:
    default_culture: it_IT

tip

As the culture is managed by the User object, it is stored in the user session. During development, if you change the default culture, you will have to clear your session cookie for the new setting to have any effect in your browser.

When a user starts a session on the Jobeet website, we can also determine the best culture, based on the information provided by the Accept-Language HTTP header.

The getLanguages() method of the request object returns an array of accepted languages for the current user, sorted by order of preference:

// in an action
$languages = $request->getLanguages();

But most of the time, your website won't be available in the world's 136 major languages. The getPreferredCulture() method returns the best language by comparing the user preferred languages and the supported languages of your website:

// in an action
$language = $request->getPreferredCulture(array('en', 'fr'));

In the previous call, the returned language will be English or French according to the user preferred languages, or English (the first language in the array) if none match.

Culture in the URL

The Jobeet website will be available in English and French. As a URL can only represent a single resource, the culture must be embedded in the URL. In order to do that, open the routing.yml file, and add the special :sf_culture variable for all routes but the api_jobs and the homepage ones. For simple routes, add /:sf_culture to the front of the url. For collection routes, add a prefix_path option that starts with /:sf_culture.

# apps/frontend/config/routing.yml
affiliate:
  class: sfPropelRouteCollection
  options:
    model:          JobeetAffiliate
    actions:        [new, create]
    object_actions: { wait: get }
    prefix_path:    /:sf_culture/affiliate
 
category:
  url:     /:sf_culture/category/:slug.:sf_format
  class:   sfPropelRoute
  param:   { module: category, action: show, sf_format: html }
  options: { model: JobeetCategory, type: object }
  requirements:
    sf_format: (?:html|atom)
 
job_search:
  url:   /:sf_culture/search
  param: { module: job, action: search }
 
job:
  class: sfPropelRouteCollection
  options:
    model:          JobeetJob
    column:         token
    object_actions: { publish: put, extend: put }
    prefix_path:    /:sf_culture/job
  requirements:
    token: \w+
 
job_show_user:
  url:     /:sf_culture/job/:company_slug/:location_slug/:id/:position_slug
  class:   sfPropelRoute
  options:
    model: JobeetJob
    type: object
    method_for_criteria: doSelectActive
  param:   { module: job, action: show }
  requirements:
    id:        \d+
    sf_method: get

When the sf_culture variable is used in a route, symfony will automatically use its value to change the culture of the user.

As we need as many homepages as languages we support (/en/, /fr/, ...), the default homepage (/) must redirect to the appropriate localized one, according to the user culture. But if the user has no culture yet, because he comes to Jobeet for the first time, the preferred culture will be chosen for him.

First, add the isFirstRequest() method to myUser. It returns true only for the very first request of a user session:

// apps/frontend/lib/myUser.class.php
public function isFirstRequest($boolean = null)
{
  if (is_null($boolean))
  {
    return $this->getAttribute('first_request', true);
  }
  else
  {
    $this->setAttribute('first_request', $boolean);
  }
}

Add a localized_homepage route:

# apps/frontend/config/routing.yml
localized_homepage:
  url:   /:sf_culture/
  param: { module: job, action: index }
  requirements:
    sf_culture: (?:fr|en)

Change the index action of the job module to implement the logic to redirect the user to the "best" homepage on the first request of a session:

// apps/frontend/modules/job/actions/actions.class.php
public function executeIndex(sfWebRequest $request)
{
  if (!$request->getParameter('sf_culture'))
  {
    if ($this->getUser()->isFirstRequest())
    {
      $culture = $request->getPreferredCulture(array('en', 'fr'));
      $this->getUser()->setCulture($culture);
      $this->getUser()->isFirstRequest(false);
    }
    else
    {
      $culture = $this->getUser()->getCulture();
    }
 
    $this->redirect('@localized_homepage');
  }
 
  $this->categories = JobeetCategoryPeer::getWithJobs();
}

If the sf_culture variable is not present in the request, it means that the user has come to the / URL. If this is the case and the session is new, the preferred culture is used as the user culture. Otherwise the user's current culture is used.

The last step is to redirect the user to the localized_homepage URL. Notice that the sf_culture variable has not been passed in the redirect call as symfony adds it automatically for you.

Now, if you try to go to the /it/ URL, symfony will return a 404 error as we have restricted the sf_culture variable to en, or fr. Add this requirement to all the routes that embed the culture:

requirements:
  sf_culture: (?:fr|en)

Culture Testing

It is time to test our implementation. But before adding more tests, we need to fix the existing ones. As all URLs have changed, edit all functional test files in test/functional/frontend/ and add /en in front of all URLs. Don't forget to also change the URLs in the lib/test/JobeetTestFunctional.class.php file. Launch the test suite to check that you have correctly fixed the tests:

$ php symfony test:functional frontend

The user tester provides an isCulture() method that tests the current user's culture. Open the jobActionsTest file and add the following tests:

// test/functional/frontend/jobActionsTest.php
$browser->setHttpHeader('ACCEPT_LANGUAGE', 'fr_FR,fr,en;q=0.7');
$browser->
  info('6 - User culture')->
 
  restart()->
 
  info('  6.1 - For the first request, symfony guesses the best culture')->
  get('/')->
  isRedirected()->followRedirect()->
  with('user')->isCulture('fr')->
 
  info('  6.2 - Available cultures are en and fr')->
  get('/it/')->
  with('response')->isStatusCode(404)
;
 
$browser->setHttpHeader('ACCEPT_LANGUAGE', 'en,fr;q=0.7');
$browser->
  info('  6.3 - The culture guessing is only for the first request')->
 
  get('/')->
  isRedirected()->followRedirect()->
  with('user')->isCulture('fr')
;

Language Switching

For the user to change the culture, a language form must be added in the layout. The form framework does not provide such a form out of the box but as the need is quite common for internationalized websites, the symfony core team maintains the sfFormExtraPlugin, which contains validators, widgets, and forms which cannot be included with the main symfony package as they are too specific or have external dependencies but are nonetheless very useful.

Install the plugin with the plugin:install task:

$ php symfony plugin:install sfFormExtraPlugin

note

The sfFormExtraPlugin contains widgets that require external dependencies like JavaScript libraries. You will find a widget for rich date selectors, one for a WYSIWYG editor, and much more. Take the time to read the documentation as you will find a lot of useful stuff.

The sfFormExtraPlugin plugin provides a sfFormLanguage form to manage the language selection. Adding the language form can be done in the layout like this:

note

The below code is not meant to be implemented. It is here to show you how you might be tempted to implement something in the wrong way. We will go on to show you how to implement it properly using symfony.

// apps/frontend/templates/layout.php
<div id="footer">
  <div class="content">
    <!-- footer content -->
 
    <?php $form = new sfFormLanguage(
      $sf_user,
      array('languages' => array('en', 'fr'))
      )
    ?>
    <form action="<?php echo url_for('@change_language') ?>">
      <?php echo $form ?><input type="submit" value="ok" />
    </form>
  </div>
</div>

Do you spot a problem? Right, the form object creation does not belong to the View layer. It must be created from an action. But as the code is in the layout, the form must be created for every action, which is far from practical. In such cases, you should use a component. A component is like a partial but with some code attached to it. Consider it a lightweight action.

Including a component from a template can be done by using the include_component() helper:

// apps/frontend/templates/layout.php
<div id="footer">
  <div class="content">
    <!-- footer content -->
 
    <?php include_component('language', 'language') ?>
  </div>
</div>

The helper takes the module and the action as arguments. The third argument can be used to pass parameters to the component.

Create a language module to host the component and the action that will actually change the user language:

$ php symfony generate:module frontend language

Components are to be defined in the actions/components.class.php file.

Create this file now:

// apps/frontend/modules/language/actions/components.class.php
class languageComponents extends sfComponents
{
  public function executeLanguage(sfWebRequest $request)
  {
    $this->form = new sfFormLanguage(
      $this->getUser(),
      array('languages' => array('en', 'fr'))
    );
  }
}

As you can see, a components class is quite similar to an actions class.

The template for a component uses the same naming convention as a partial would: an underscore (_) followed by the component name:

// apps/frontend/modules/language/templates/_language.php
<form action="<?php echo url_for('@change_language') ?>">
  <?php echo $form ?><input type="submit" value="ok" />
</form>

As the plugin does not provide the action that actually changes the user culture, edit the routing.yml file to create the change_language route:

# apps/frontend/config/routing.yml
change_language:
  url:   /change_language
  param: { module: language, action: changeLanguage }

And create the corresponding action:

// apps/frontend/modules/language/actions/actions.class.php
class languageActions extends sfActions
{
  public function executeChangeLanguage(sfWebRequest $request)
  {
    $form = new sfFormLanguage(
      $this->getUser(),
      array('languages' => array('en', 'fr'))
    );
 
    $form->process($request);
 
    return $this->redirect('@localized_homepage');
  }
}

The process() method of sfFormLanguage takes care of changing the user culture, based on the user form submission.

Internationalized Footer

Internationalization

Languages, Charset, and Encoding

Different languages have different character sets. The English language is the simplest one as it only uses the ASCII characters, the French language is a bit more complex with accentuated characters like "é", and languages like Russian, Chinese, or Arabic are much more complex as all their characters are outside the ASCII range. Such languages are defined with totally different character sets.

When dealing with internationalized data, it is better to use the unicode norm. The idea behind unicode is to establish a universal set of characters that contains all characters for all languages. The problem with unicode is that a single character can be represented with as many as 21 octets. Therefore, for the web, we use UTF-8, which maps Unicode code points to variable-length sequences of octets. In UTF-8, most used languages have their characters coded with less than 3 octets.

UTF-8 is the default encoding used by symfony, and it is defined in the settings.yml configuration file:

# apps/frontend/config/settings.yml
all:
  .settings:
    charset: utf-8

Also, to enable the internationalization layer of symfony, you must set the i18n setting to true in settings.yml:

# apps/frontend/config/settings.yml
all:
  .settings:
    i18n: true

Templates

An internationalized website means that the user interface is translated into several languages.

In a template, all strings that are language dependent must be wrapped with the __() helper (notice that there is two underscores).

The __() helper is part of the I18N helper group, which contains helpers that ease i18n management in templates. As this helper group is not loaded by default, you need to either manually add it in each template with use_helper('I18N') as we already did for the Text helper group, or load it globally by adding it to the standard_helpers setting:

# apps/frontend/config/settings.yml
all:
  .settings:
    standard_helpers: [Partial, Cache, I18N]

Here is how to use the __() helper for the Jobeet footer:

// apps/frontend/templates/layout.php
<div id="footer">
  <div class="content">
    <span class="symfony">
      <img src="/legacy/images/jobeet-mini.png" />
      powered by <a href="/">
      <img src="/legacy/images/symfony.gif" alt="symfony framework" /></a>
    </span>
    <ul>
      <li>
        <a href=""><?php echo __('About Jobeet') ?></a>
      </li>
      <li class="feed">
        <?php echo link_to(__('Full feed'), '@job?sf_format=atom') ?>
      </li>
      <li>
        <a href=""><?php echo __('Jobeet API') ?></a>
      </li>
      <li class="last">
        <?php echo link_to(__('Become an affiliate'), '@affiliate_new') ?>
      </li>
    </ul>
    <?php include_component('language', 'language') ?>
  </div>
</div>

note

The __() helper can take the string for the default language or you can also use a unique identifier for each string. It is just a matter of taste. For Jobeet, we will use the former strategy so templates are more readable.

When symfony renders a template, each time the __() helper is called, symfony looks for a translation for the current user's culture. If a translation is found, it is used, if not, the first argument is returned as a fallback value.

All translations are stored in a catalogue. The i18n framework provides a lot of different strategies to store the translations. We will use the "XLIFF" format, which is a standard and the most flexible one. It is also the store used by the admin generator and most symfony plugins.

note

Other catalogue stores are gettext, MySQL, and SQLite. As always, have a look at the i18n API for more details.

i18n:extract

Instead of creating the catalogue file by hand, use the built-in i18n:extract task:

$ php symfony i18n:extract frontend fr --auto-save

The i18n:extract task finds all strings that need to be translated in fr in the frontend application and creates or updates the corresponding catalogue. The --auto-save option saves the new strings in the catalogue. You can also use the --auto-delete option to automatically remove strings that do not exist anymore.

In our case, it populates the file we have created:

<!-- apps/frontend/i18n/fr/messages.xml -->
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE xliff PUBLIC "-//XLIFF//DTD XLIFF//EN"
  "http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/xliff/documents/xliff.dtd">
<xliff version="1.0">
  <file source-language="EN" target-language="fr" datatype="plaintext"
      original="messages" date="2008-12-14T12:11:22Z"
      product-name="messages">
    <header/>
    <body>
      <trans-unit id="1">
        <source>About Jobeet</source>
        <target/>
      </trans-unit>
      <trans-unit id="2">
        <source>Feed</source>
        <target/>
      </trans-unit>
      <trans-unit id="3">
        <source>Jobeet API</source>
        <target/>
      </trans-unit>
      <trans-unit id="4">
        <source>Become an affiliate</source>
        <target/>
      </trans-unit>
    </body>
  </file>
</xliff>

Each translation is managed by a trans-unit tag which has a unique id attribute. You can now edit this file and add translations for the French language:

<!-- apps/frontend/i18n/fr/messages.xml -->
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE xliff PUBLIC "-//XLIFF//DTD XLIFF//EN"
  "http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/xliff/documents/xliff.dtd">
<xliff version="1.0">
  <file source-language="EN" target-language="fr" datatype="plaintext"
      original="messages" date="2008-12-14T12:11:22Z"
      product-name="messages">
    <header/>
    <body>
      <trans-unit id="1">
        <source>About Jobeet</source>
        <target>A propos de Jobeet</target>
      </trans-unit>
      <trans-unit id="2">
        <source>Feed</source>
        <target>Fil RSS</target>
      </trans-unit>
      <trans-unit id="3">
        <source>Jobeet API</source>
        <target>API Jobeet</target>
      </trans-unit>
      <trans-unit id="4">
        <source>Become an affiliate</source>
        <target>Devenir un affilié</target>
      </trans-unit>
    </body>
  </file>
</xliff>

tip

As XLIFF is a standard format, a lot of tools exist to ease the translation process. Open Language Tools is an Open-Source Java project with an integrated XLIFF editor.

tip

As XLIFF is a file-based format, the same precedence and merging rules that exist for other symfony configuration files are also applicable. I18n files can exist in a project, an application, or a module, and the most specific file overrides translations found in the more global ones.

Translations with Arguments

The main principle behind internationalization is to translate whole sentences. But some sentences embed dynamic values. In Jobeet, this is the case on the homepage for the "more..." link:

<!-- apps/frontend/modules/job/templates/indexSuccess.php -->
<div class="more_jobs">
  and <?php echo link_to($count, 'category', $category) ?> more...
</div>

The number of jobs is a variable that must be replaced by a placeholder for translation:

<!-- apps/frontend/modules/job/templates/indexSuccess.php -->
<div class="more_jobs">
  <?php echo __('and %count% more...', array('%count%' => link_to($count, 'category', $category))) ?>
</div>

The string to be translated is now "and %count% more...", and the %count% placeholder will be replaced by the real number at runtime, thanks to the value given as the second argument to the __() helper.

Add the new string manually by inserting a trans-unit tag in the messages.xml file, or use the i18n:extract task to update the file automatically:

$ php symfony i18n:extract frontend fr --auto-save

After running the task, open the XLIFF file to add the French translation:

<trans-unit id="5">
  <source>and %count% more...</source>
  <target>et %count% autres...</target>
</trans-unit>

The only requirement in the translated string is to use the %count% placeholder somewhere.

Some other strings are even more complex as they involve plurals. According to some numbers, the sentence changes, but not necessarily the same way for all languages. Some languages have very complex grammar rules for plurals, like Polish or Russian.

On the category page, the number of jobs in the current category is displayed:

<!-- apps/frontend/modules/category/templates/showSuccess.php -->
<strong><?php echo count($pager) ?></strong> jobs in this category

When a sentence has different translations according to a number, the format_number_choice() helper should be used:

<?php echo format_number_choice(
    '[0]No job in this category|[1]One job in this category|(1,+Inf]%count% jobs in this category',
    array('%count%' => '<strong>'.count($pager).'</strong>'),
    count($pager)
  )
?>

The format_number_choice() helper takes three arguments:

  • The string to use depending on the number
  • An array of placeholder replacements
  • The number to use to determine which text to use

The string that describes the different translations according to the number is formatted as follows:

  • Each possibility is separated by a pipe character (|)
  • Each string is composed of a range followed by the translation

The range can describe any range of numbers:

  • [1,2]: Accepts values between 1 and 2, inclusive
  • (1,2): Accepts values between 1 and 2, excluding 1 and 2
  • {1,2,3,4}: Only values defined in the set are accepted
  • [-Inf,0): Accepts values greater or equal to negative infinity and strictly less than 0
  • {n: n % 10 > 1 && n % 10 < 5}: Matches numbers like 2, 3, 4, 22, 23, 24

Translating the string is similar to other message strings:

<trans-unit id="6">
  <source>[0]No job in this category|[1]One job in this category|(1,+Inf]%count% jobs in this category</source>
  <target>[0]Aucune annonce dans cette catégorie|[1]Une annonce dans cette catégorie|(1,+Inf]%count% annonces dans cette catégorie</target>
</trans-unit>

Now that you know how to internationalize all kind of strings, take the time to add __() calls for all templates of the frontend application. We won't internationalize the backend application.

Forms

The form classes contain many strings that need to be translated, like labels, error messages, and help messages. All these strings are automatically internationalized by symfony, so you only need to provide translations in the XLIFF files.

note

Unfortunately, the i18n:extract task does not yet parse form classes for untranslated strings.

Propel Objects

For the Jobeet website, we won't internationalize all tables as it does not make sense to ask the job posters to translate their job posts in all available languages. But the category table definitely needs to be translated.

The Propel plugin supports i18n tables out of the box. For each table that contains localized data, two tables need to be created: one for columns that are i18n-independent, and the other one with columns that need to be internationalized. The two tables are linked by a one-to-many relationship.

Update the schema.yml|schema.yml (I18n) accordingly:

# config/schema.yml
jobeet_category:
  _attributes:  { isI18N: true, i18nTable: jobeet_category_i18n }
  id:           ~
 
jobeet_category_i18n:
  id:           { type: integer, required: true, primaryKey: true, foreignTable: jobeet_category, foreignReference: id }
  culture:      { isCulture: true, type: varchar, size: 7, required: true, primaryKey: true }
  name:         { type: varchar(255), required: true }
  slug:         { type: varchar(255), required: true }

The _attributes entry defines options for the table.

And update the fixtures for categories:

# data/fixtures/010_categories.yml
JobeetCategory:
  design:        { }
  programming:   { }
  manager:       { }
  administrator: { }
 
JobeetCategoryI18n:
  design_en:        { id: design, culture: en, name: Design }
  programming_en:   { id: programming, culture: en, name: Programming }
  manager_en:       { id: manager, culture: en, name: Manager }
  administrator_en: { id: administrator, culture: en, name: Administrator }
 
  design_fr:        { id: design, culture: fr, name: Design }
  programming_fr:   { id: programming, culture: fr, name: Programmation }
  manager_fr:       { id: manager, culture: fr, name: Manager }
  administrator_fr: { id: administrator, culture: fr, name: Administrateur }

Rebuild the model to create the i18n stub classes:

$ php symfony propel:build-all --no-confirmation
$ php symfony cc

As the name and slug columns have been moved to the i18n table, move the setName() method from JobeetCategory to JobeetCategoryI18n:

// lib/model/JobeetCategoryI18n.php
public function setName($name)
{
  parent::setName($name);
 
  $this->setSlug(Jobeet::slugify($name));
}

We also need to fix the getForSlug() method in JobeetCategoryPeer:

// lib/model/JobeetCategoryPeer.php
static public function getForSlug($slug)
{
  $criteria = new Criteria();
  $criteria->addJoin(JobeetCategoryI18nPeer::ID, self::ID);
  $criteria->add(JobeetCategoryI18nPeer::CULTURE, 'en');
  $criteria->add(JobeetCategoryI18nPeer::SLUG, $slug);
 
  return self::doSelectOne($criteria);
}

tip

As the propel:build-all removes all tables and data from the database, don't forget to re-create a user to access the Jobeet backend with the guard:create-user task. Alternatively, you can add a fixture file to add it automatically for you.

When building the model, symfony creates proxy methods in the main JobeetCategory object to conveniently access the i18n columns defined in JobeetCategoryI18n:

$category = new JobeetCategory();
 
$category->setName('foo');       // sets the name for the current culture
$category->setName('foo', 'fr'); // sets the name for French
 
echo $category->getName();     // gets the name for the current culture
echo $category->getName('fr'); // gets the name for French

tip

To reduce the number of database requests, use the doSelectWithI18n() method instead of the regular doSelect() one. It will retrieve the main object and the i18n one in one request.

$categories = JobeetCategoryPeer::doSelectWithI18n($c, $culture);

As the category route is tied to the JobeetCategory model class and because the slug is now part of JobeetCategoryI18n, the route is not able to retrieve the Category object automatically. To help the routing system, let's create a method that will take care of object retrieval:

// lib/model/JobeetCategoryPeer.php
class JobeetCategoryPeer extends BaseJobeetCategoryPeer
{
  static public function doSelectForSlug($parameters)
  {
    $criteria = new Criteria();
    $criteria->addJoin(JobeetCategoryI18nPeer::ID, JobeetCategoryPeer::ID);
    $criteria->add(JobeetCategoryI18nPeer::CULTURE, $parameters['sf_culture']);
    $criteria->add(JobeetCategoryI18nPeer::SLUG, $parameters['slug']);
 
    return self::doSelectOne($criteria);
  }
}

Then, use the method option|method option (Routing) to tell the category route to use the doSelectForSlug() method to retrieve the object:

# apps/frontend/config/routing.yml
category:
  url:     /:sf_culture/category/:slug.:sf_format
  class:   sfPropelRoute
  param:   { module: category, action: show, sf_format: html }
  options: { model: JobeetCategory, type: object, method: doSelectForSlug }
  requirements:
    sf_format: (?:html|atom)

We need to reload the fixtures to regenerate the proper slugs for the categories:

$ php symfony propel:data-load

Now the category route is internationalized and the URL for a category embeds the translated category slug:

/frontend_dev.php/fr/category/programmation
/frontend_dev.php/en/category/programming

Admin Generator

For the backend, we want the French and the English translations to be edited in the same form:

Backend categories

Embedding an i18n form can be done by using the embedI18N() method:

// lib/form/JobeetCategoryForm.class.php
class JobeetCategoryForm extends BaseJobeetCategoryForm
{
  public function configure()
  {
    unset($this['jobeet_category_affiliate_list']);
 
    $this->embedI18n(array('en', 'fr'));
    $this->widgetSchema->setLabel('en', 'English');
    $this->widgetSchema->setLabel('fr', 'French');
  }
}

The admin generator interface supports internationalization out of the box. It comes with translations for more than 20 languages, and it is quite easy to add a new one, or to customize an existing one. Copy the file for the language you want to customize from symfony (admin translations are to be found in lib/vendor/symfony/lib/plugins/sfPropelPlugin/i18n/) in the application i18n directory. As the file in your application will be merged with the symfony one, only keep the modified strings in the application file.

You will notice that the admin generator translation files are named like sf_admin.fr.xml, instead of fr/messages.xml. As a matter of fact, messages is the name of the default catalogue used by symfony, and can be changed to allow a better separation between different parts of your application. Using a catalogue other than the default one requires that you specify it when using the __() helper:

<?php echo __('About Jobeet', array(), 'jobeet') ?>

In the above __() call, symfony will look for the "About Jobeet" string in the jobeet catalogue.

Tests

Fixing tests is an integral part of the internationalization migration. First, update the test fixtures for categories by copying the fixtures we have defined above in test/fixtures/010_categories.yml.

Rebuild the model for the test environment:

$ php symfony propel:build-all-load --no-confirmation --env=test

You can now launch all tests to check that they are running fine:

$ php symfony test:all

note

When we have developed the backend interface for Jobeet, we have not written functional tests. But whenever you create a module with the symfony command line, symfony also generate test stubs. These stubs are safe to remove.

Localization

Templates

Supporting different cultures also means supporting different way to format dates and numbers. In a template, several helpers are at your disposal to help take all these differences into account, based on the current user culture:

In the Date helper group:

Helper Description
format_date() Formats a date
format_datetime() Formats a date with a time (hours, minutes, seconds)
time_ago_in_words() Displays the elapsed time between a date and now in words
distance_of_time_in_words() Displays the elapsed time between two dates in words
format_daterange() Formats a range of dates

In the Number helper group:

Helper Description
format_number() Formats a number
format_currency() Formats a currency

In the I18N helper group:

Helper Description
format_country() Displays the name of a country
format_language() Displays the name of a language

Forms (I18n)

The form framework provides several widgets and validators for localized data:

See you Tomorrow

Internationalization and localization are first-class citizens in symfony. Providing a localized website to your users is very easy as symfony provides all the basic tools and even gives you command line tasks to make it fast.

Be prepared for a very special tutorial tomorrow as we will be moving a lot of files around and exploring a different approach to organizing a symfony project.