DoctrineMigrationsBundle

2.1 version
English

DoctrineMigrationsBundle

The database migrations feature is an extension of the database abstraction layer and offers you the ability to programmatically deploy new versions of your database schema in a safe, easy and standardized way.

Tip

You can read more about the Doctrine Database Migrations on the project's documentation.

Installation

Doctrine migrations for Symfony are maintained in the DoctrineMigrationsBundle. The bundle uses external Doctrine Database Migrations library.

Follow these steps to install the bundle and the library in the Symfony Standard edition. Add the following to your composer.json file:

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{
    "require": {
        "doctrine/migrations": "1.0.*@dev",
        "doctrine/doctrine-migrations-bundle": "2.1.*@dev"
    }
}

Update the vendor libraries:

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$ php composer.phar update

If everything worked, the DoctrineMigrationsBundle can now be found at vendor/doctrine/doctrine-migrations-bundle.

Note

DoctrineMigrationsBundle installs Doctrine Database Migrations library. The library can be found at vendor/doctrine/migrations.

Finally, be sure to enable the bundle in AppKernel.php by including the following:

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// app/AppKernel.php
public function registerBundles()
{
    $bundles = array(
        //...
        new Doctrine\Bundle\MigrationsBundle\DoctrineMigrationsBundle(),
    );
}

Configuration

You can configure the path, namespace, table_name and name in your config.yml. The examples below are the default values.

// app/config/config.yml
doctrine_migrations:
    dir_name: %kernel.root_dir%/DoctrineMigrations
    namespace: Application\Migrations
    table_name: migration_versions
    name: Application Migrations

Usage

All of the migrations functionality is contained in a few console commands:

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doctrine:migrations
  :diff     Generate a migration by comparing your current database to your mapping information.
  :execute  Execute a single migration version up or down manually.
  :generate Generate a blank migration class.
  :migrate  Execute a migration to a specified version or the latest available version.
  :status   View the status of a set of migrations.
  :version  Manually add and delete migration versions from the version table.

Start by getting the status of migrations in your application by running the status command:

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php app/console doctrine:migrations:status

 == Configuration

    >> Name:                                               Application Migrations
    >> Configuration Source:                               manually configured
    >> Version Table Name:                                 migration_versions
    >> Migrations Namespace:                               Application\Migrations
    >> Migrations Directory:                               /path/to/project/app/DoctrineMigrations
    >> Current Version:                                    0
    >> Latest Version:                                     0
    >> Executed Migrations:                                0
    >> Available Migrations:                               0
    >> New Migrations:                                     0

Now, you can start working with migrations by generating a new blank migration class. Later, you'll learn how Doctrine can generate migrations automatically for you.

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php app/console doctrine:migrations:generate
Generated new migration class to "/path/to/project/app/DoctrineMigrations/Version20100621140655.php"

Have a look at the newly generated migration class and you will see something like the following:

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namespace Application\Migrations;

use Doctrine\DBAL\Migrations\AbstractMigration,
    Doctrine\DBAL\Schema\Schema;

class Version20100621140655 extends AbstractMigration
{
    public function up(Schema $schema)
    {

    }

    public function down(Schema $schema)
    {

    }
}

If you run the status command it will now show that you have one new migration to execute:

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php app/console doctrine:migrations:status --show-versions

 == Configuration

   >> Name:                                               Application Migrations
   >> Configuration Source:                               manually configured
   >> Version Table Name:                                 migration_versions
   >> Migrations Namespace:                               Application\Migrations
   >> Migrations Directory:                               /path/to/project/app/DoctrineMigrations
   >> Current Version:                                    0
   >> Latest Version:                                     2010-06-21 14:06:55 (20100621140655)
   >> Executed Migrations:                                0
   >> Available Migrations:                               1
   >> New Migrations:                                     1

== Migration Versions

   >> 2010-06-21 14:06:55 (20100621140655)                not migrated

Now you can add some migration code to the up() and down() methods and finally migrate when you're ready:

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php app/console doctrine:migrations:migrate 20100621140655

For more information on how to write the migrations themselves (i.e. how to fill in the up() and down() methods), see the official Doctrine Migrations documentation.

Running Migrations during Deployment

Of course, the end goal of writing migrations is to be able to use them to reliably update your database structure when you deploy your application. By running the migrations locally (or on a beta server), you can ensure that the migrations work as you expect.

When you do finally deploy your application, you just need to remember to run the doctrine:migrations:migrate command. Internally, Doctrine creates a migration_versions table inside your database and tracks which migrations have been executed there. So, no matter how many migrations you've created and executed locally, when you run the command during deployment, Doctrine will know exactly which migrations it hasn't run yet by looking at the migration_versions table of your production database. Regardless of what server you're on, you can always safely run this command to execute only the migrations that haven't been run yet on that particular database.

Generating Migrations Automatically

In reality, you should rarely need to write migrations manually, as the migrations library can generate migration classes automatically by comparing your Doctrine mapping information (i.e. what your database should look like) with your actual current database structure.

For example, suppose you create a new User entity and add mapping information for Doctrine's ORM:

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    // src/Acme/HelloBundle/Entity/User.php
    namespace Acme\HelloBundle\Entity;
    
    use Doctrine\ORM\Mapping as ORM;
    
    /**
     * @ORM\Entity
     * @ORM\Table(name="hello_user")
     */
    class User
    {
        /**
         * @ORM\Id
         * @ORM\Column(type="integer")
         * @ORM\GeneratedValue(strategy="AUTO")
         */
        protected $id;
    
        /**
         * @ORM\Column(type="string", length="255")
         */
        protected $name;
    }
    
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    # src/Acme/HelloBundle/Resources/config/doctrine/User.orm.yml
    Acme\HelloBundle\Entity\User:
        type: entity
        table: hello_user
        id:
            id:
                type: integer
                generator:
                    strategy: AUTO
        fields:
            name:
                type: string
                length: 255
    
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    <!-- src/Acme/HelloBundle/Resources/config/doctrine/User.orm.xml -->
    <doctrine-mapping xmlns="http://doctrine-project.org/schemas/orm/doctrine-mapping"
          xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="http://doctrine-project.org/schemas/orm/doctrine-mapping
                        http://doctrine-project.org/schemas/orm/doctrine-mapping.xsd">
    
        <entity name="Acme\HelloBundle\Entity\User" table="hello_user">
            <id name="id" type="integer" column="id">
                <generator strategy="AUTO"/>
            </id>
            <field name="name" column="name" type="string" length="255" />
        </entity>
    
    </doctrine-mapping>
    

With this information, Doctrine is now ready to help you persist your new User object to and from the hello_user table. Of course, this table doesn't exist yet! Generate a new migration for this table automatically by running the following command:

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php app/console doctrine:migrations:diff

You should see a message that a new migration class was generated based on the schema differences. If you open this file, you'll find that it has the SQL code needed to create the hello_user table. Next, run the migration to add the table to your database:

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php app/console doctrine:migrations:migrate

The moral of the story is this: after each change you make to your Doctrine mapping information, run the doctrine:migrations:diff command to automatically generate your migration classes.

If you do this from the very beginning of your project (i.e. so that even the first tables were loaded via a migration class), you'll always be able to create a fresh database and run your migrations in order to get your database schema fully up to date. In fact, this is an easy and dependable workflow for your project.

Container Aware Migrations

In some cases you might need access to the container to ensure the proper update of your data structure. This could be necessary to update relations with some specific logic or to create new entities.

Therefore you can just implement the ContainerAwareInterface with its needed methods to get full access to the container.

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// ...
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerAwareInterface;
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerInterface;

class Version20130326212938 extends AbstractMigration implements ContainerAwareInterface
{

    private $container;

    public function setContainer(ContainerInterface $container = null)
    {
        $this->container = $container;
    }

    public function up(Schema $schema)
    {
        // ... migration content
    }

    public function postUp(Schema $schema)
    {
        $em = $this->container->get('doctrine.orm.entity_manager');
        // ... update the entities
    }
}

Manual Tables

It is a common use case, that in addition to your generated database structure based on your doctrine entities you might need custom tables. By default such tables will be removed by the doctrine:migrations:diff command.

If you follow a specific scheme you can configure doctrine/dbal to ignore those tables. Let's say all custom tables will be prefixed by t_. In this case you just have to add the following configuration option to your doctrine configuration:

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    doctrine:
        dbal:
            schema_filter: ~^(?!t_)~
    
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    <doctrine:dbal schema-filter="~^(?!t_)~" ... />
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    $container->loadFromExtension('doctrine', array(
        'dbal' => array(
            'schema_filter'  => '~^(?!t_)~',
            // ...
        ),
        // ...
    ));
    

This ignores the tables on the DBAL level and they will be ignored by the diff command.

Note that if you have multiple connections configured then the schema_filter configuration will need to be placed per-connection.

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