DoctrineFixturesBundle

DoctrineFixturesBundle

Fixtures are used to load a controlled set of data into a database. This data can be used for testing or could be the initial data required for the application to run smoothly. Symfony has no built in way to manage fixtures but Doctrine2 has a library to help you write fixtures for the Doctrine ORM or ODM.

Setup and Configuration

Doctrine fixtures for Symfony are maintained in the DoctrineFixturesBundle, which uses external Doctrine Data Fixtures library.

Follow these steps to install the bundle in your Symfony applications:

Step 1: Download the Bundle

Open a command console, enter your project directory and execute the following command to download the latest stable version of this bundle:

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composer require --dev doctrine/doctrine-fixtures-bundle

This command requires you to have Composer installed globally, as explained in the installation chapter of the Composer documentation.

Step 2: Enable the Bundle

Then, add the following line in the app/AppKernel.php file to enable this bundle only for the dev and test environments:

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// app/AppKernel.php
// ...

class AppKernel extends Kernel
{
    public function registerBundles()
    {
        // ...
        if (in_array($this->getEnvironment(), array('dev', 'test'))) {
            $bundles[] = new Doctrine\Bundle\FixturesBundle\DoctrineFixturesBundle();
        }

        return $bundles
    }

    // ...
}

Writing Simple Fixtures

Doctrine2 fixtures are PHP classes where you can create objects and persist them to the database. Like all classes in Symfony, fixtures should live inside one of your application bundles.

For a bundle located at src/AppBundle, the fixture classes should live inside src/AppBundle/DataFixtures/ORM or src/AppBundle/DataFixtures/MongoDB respectively for the ORM and ODM. This tutorial assumes that you are using the ORM, but fixtures can be added just as easily if you're using the ODM.

Imagine that you have a User class, and you'd like to load one User entry:

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// src/AppBundle/DataFixtures/ORM/LoadUserData.php

namespace AppBundle\DataFixtures\ORM;

use Doctrine\Common\DataFixtures\FixtureInterface;
use Doctrine\Common\Persistence\ObjectManager;
use AppBundle\Entity\User;

class LoadUserData implements FixtureInterface
{
    public function load(ObjectManager $manager)
    {
        $userAdmin = new User();
        $userAdmin->setUsername('admin');
        $userAdmin->setPassword('test');

        $manager->persist($userAdmin);
        $manager->flush();
    }
}

In Doctrine2, fixtures are just objects where you load data by interacting with your entities as you normally do. This allows you to create the exact fixtures you need for your application.

Loading Fixtures

Once your fixtures have been written, you can load them via the command line by using the doctrine:fixtures:load command:

Caution

By default the load command purges the database, removing all data from every table. To append your fixtures' data specify the --append option.

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php app/console doctrine:fixtures:load

If you're using the ODM, use the doctrine:mongodb:fixtures:load command instead:

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php app/console doctrine:mongodb:fixtures:load

The task will look inside the DataFixtures/ORM/ (or DataFixtures/MongoDB/ for the ODM) directory of each bundle and execute each class that implements the FixtureInterface.

Both commands come with a few options:

  • --fixtures=/path/to/fixture - Use this option to manually specify the directory where the fixtures classes should be loaded;
  • --append - Use this flag to append data instead of deleting data before loading it (deleting first is the default behavior);
  • --em=manager_name - Manually specify the entity manager to use for loading the data.

Note

If using the doctrine:mongodb:fixtures:load task, replace the --em= option with --dm= to manually specify the document manager.

A full example use might look like this:

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php app/console doctrine:fixtures:load --fixtures=/path/to/fixture1 --fixtures=/path/to/fixture2 --append --em=foo_manager

Sharing Objects between Fixtures

Writing a basic fixture is simple. But what if you have multiple fixture classes and want to be able to refer to the data loaded in other fixture classes? For example, what if you load a User object in one fixture, and then want to refer to it in a different fixture in order to assign that user to a particular group?

The Doctrine fixtures library handles this easily by allowing you to specify the order in which fixtures are loaded.

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// src/AppBundle/DataFixtures/ORM/LoadUserData.php
namespace AppBundle\DataFixtures\ORM;

use Doctrine\Common\DataFixtures\AbstractFixture;
use Doctrine\Common\DataFixtures\OrderedFixtureInterface;
use Doctrine\Common\Persistence\ObjectManager;
use AppBundle\Entity\User;

class LoadUserData extends AbstractFixture implements OrderedFixtureInterface
{
    public function load(ObjectManager $manager)
    {
        $userAdmin = new User();
        $userAdmin->setUsername('admin');
        $userAdmin->setPassword('test');

        $manager->persist($userAdmin);
        $manager->flush();

        $this->addReference('admin-user', $userAdmin);
    }

    public function getOrder()
    {
        // the order in which fixtures will be loaded
        // the lower the number, the sooner that this fixture is loaded
        return 1;
    }
}

The fixture class now implements OrderedFixtureInterface, which tells Doctrine that you want to control the order of your fixtures. Create another fixture class and make it load after LoadUserData by returning an order of 2:

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// src/AppBundle/DataFixtures/ORM/LoadGroupData.php
namespace AppBundle\DataFixtures\ORM;

use Doctrine\Common\DataFixtures\AbstractFixture;
use Doctrine\Common\DataFixtures\OrderedFixtureInterface;
use Doctrine\Common\Persistence\ObjectManager;
use ApBundle\Entity\Group;

class LoadGroupData extends AbstractFixture implements OrderedFixtureInterface
{
    public function load(ObjectManager $manager)
    {
        $groupAdmin = new Group();
        $groupAdmin->setGroupName('admin');

        $manager->persist($groupAdmin);
        $manager->flush();

        $this->addReference('admin-group', $groupAdmin);
    }

    public function getOrder()
    {
        // the order in which fixtures will be loaded
        // the lower the number, the sooner that this fixture is loaded
        return 2;
    }
}

Both of the fixture classes extend AbstractFixture, which allows you to create objects and then set them as references so that they can be used later in other fixtures. For example, the $userAdmin and $groupAdmin objects can be referenced later via the admin-user and admin-group references:

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// src/AppBundle/DataFixtures/ORM/LoadUserGroupData.php
namespace AppBundle\DataFixtures\ORM;

use Doctrine\Common\DataFixtures\AbstractFixture;
use Doctrine\Common\DataFixtures\OrderedFixtureInterface;
use Doctrine\Common\Persistence\ObjectManager;
use AppBundle\Entity\UserGroup;

class LoadUserGroupData extends AbstractFixture implements OrderedFixtureInterface
{
    public function load(ObjectManager $manager)
    {
        $userGroupAdmin = new UserGroup();
        $userGroupAdmin->setUser($this->getReference('admin-user'));
        $userGroupAdmin->setGroup($this->getReference('admin-group'));

        $manager->persist($userGroupAdmin);
        $manager->flush();
    }

    public function getOrder()
    {
        return 3;
    }
}

The fixtures will now be executed in the ascending order of the value returned by getOrder(). Any object that is set with the setReference() method can be accessed via getReference() in fixture classes that have a higher order.

Fixtures allow you to create any type of data you need via the normal PHP interface for creating and persisting objects. By controlling the order of fixtures and setting references, almost anything can be handled by fixtures.

Using the Container in the Fixtures

In some cases you may need to access some services to load the fixtures. Symfony makes it really easy: the container will be injected in all fixture classes implementing ContainerAwareInterface.

Let's rewrite the first fixture to encode the password before it's stored in the database (a very good practice). This will use the encoder factory to encode the password, ensuring it is encoded in the way used by the security component when checking it:

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// src/AppBundle/DataFixtures/ORM/LoadUserData.php
namespace AppBundle\DataFixtures\ORM;

use Doctrine\Common\DataFixtures\FixtureInterface;
use Doctrine\Common\Persistence\ObjectManager;
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerAwareInterface;
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerInterface;
use AppBundle\Entity\User;

class LoadUserData implements FixtureInterface, ContainerAwareInterface
{
    /**
     * @var ContainerInterface
     */
    private $container;

    public function setContainer(ContainerInterface $container = null)
    {
        $this->container = $container;
    }

    public function load(ObjectManager $manager)
    {

        $user = new User();
        $user->setUsername('admin');
        $user->setSalt(md5(uniqid()));

        // the 'security.password_encoder' service requires Symfony 2.6 or higher
        $encoder = $this->container->get('security.password_encoder');
        $password = $encoder->encodePassword($user, 'secret_password');
        $user->setPassword($password);

        $manager->persist($user);
        $manager->flush();
    }
}

As you can see, all you need to do is add ContainerAwareInterface to the class and then create a new setContainer() method that implements that interface. Before the fixture is executed, Symfony will call the setContainer() method automatically. As long as you store the container as a property in the class (as shown above), you can access it in the load() method.

Note

If you prefer not to implement the needed method setContainer(), you can then extend your class with ContainerAware.

This work, including the code samples, is licensed under a Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 license.