You are browsing the Symfony 5.0 documentation, which changes significantly from Symfony 3.x. If your app doesn't use Symfony 5.0 yet, browse the Symfony 3.4 documentation.

Swift Mailer

5.0 version

Swift Mailer

Note

In Symfony 4.3, the Mailer component was introduced and can be used instead of Swift Mailer.

Symfony provides a mailer feature based on the popular Swift Mailer library via the SwiftMailerBundle. This mailer supports sending messages with your own mail servers as well as using popular email providers like Mandrill, SendGrid, and Amazon SES.

Installation

In applications using Symfony Flex, run this command to install the Swift Mailer based mailer before using it:

1
$ composer require symfony/swiftmailer-bundle

If your application doesn't use Symfony Flex, follow the installation instructions on SwiftMailerBundle.

Configuration

The config/packages/swiftmailer.yaml file that's created when installing the mailer provides all the initial config needed to send emails, except your mail server connection details. Those parameters are defined in the MAILER_URL environment variable in the .env file:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
# .env (or override MAILER_URL in .env.local to avoid committing your changes)

# use this to disable email delivery
MAILER_URL=null://localhost

# use this to configure a traditional SMTP server
MAILER_URL=smtp://localhost:465?encryption=ssl&auth_mode=login&username=&password=

Caution

If the username, password or host contain any character considered special in a URI (such as +, @, $, #, /, :, *, !), you must encode them. See RFC 3986 for the full list of reserved characters or use the urlencode function to encode them.

Refer to the SwiftMailer configuration reference for the detailed explanation of all the available config options.

Sending Emails

The Swift Mailer library works by creating, configuring and then sending Swift_Message objects. The "mailer" is responsible for the actual delivery of the message and is accessible via the Swift_Mailer service. Overall, sending an email is pretty straightforward:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
public function index($name, \Swift_Mailer $mailer)
{
    $message = (new \Swift_Message('Hello Email'))
        ->setFrom('[email protected]')
        ->setTo('[email protected]')
        ->setBody(
            $this->renderView(
                // templates/emails/registration.html.twig
                'emails/registration.html.twig',
                ['name' => $name]
            ),
            'text/html'
        )

        // you can remove the following code if you don't define a text version for your emails
        ->addPart(
            $this->renderView(
                // templates/emails/registration.txt.twig
                'emails/registration.txt.twig',
                ['name' => $name]
            ),
            'text/plain'
        )
    ;

    $mailer->send($message);

    return $this->render(...);
}

To keep things decoupled, the email body has been stored in a template and rendered with the renderView() method. The registration.html.twig template might look something like this:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
{# templates/emails/registration.html.twig #}
<h3>You did it! You registered!</h3>

Hi {{ name }}! You're successfully registered.

{# example, assuming you have a route named "login" #}
To login, go to: <a href="{{ url('login') }}">...</a>.

Thanks!

{# Makes an absolute URL to the /images/logo.png file #}
<img src="{{ absolute_url(asset('images/logo.png')) }}">

The $message object supports many more options, such as including attachments, adding HTML content, and much more. Refer to the Creating Messages section of the Swift Mailer documentation for more details.

Using Gmail to Send Emails

During development, you might prefer to send emails using Gmail instead of setting up a regular SMTP server. To do that, update the MAILER_URL of your .env file to this:

1
2
# username is your full Gmail or Google Apps email address
MAILER_URL=gmail://username:[email protected]

The gmail transport is a shortcut that uses the smtp transport, ssl encryption, login auth mode and smtp.gmail.com host. If your app uses other encryption or auth mode, you must override those values (see mailer config reference):

1
2
# username is your full Gmail or Google Apps email address
MAILER_URL=gmail://username:[email protected]?encryption=tls&auth_mode=oauth

If your Gmail account uses 2-Step-Verification, you must generate an App password and use it as the value of the mailer password. You must also ensure that you allow less secure applications to access your Gmail account.

Using Cloud Services to Send Emails

Cloud mailing services are a popular option for companies that don't want to set up and maintain their own reliable mail servers. To use these services in a Symfony app, update the value of MAILER_URL in the .env file. For example, for Amazon SES (Simple Email Service):

1
2
3
# The host will be different depending on your AWS zone
# The username/password credentials are obtained from the Amazon SES console
MAILER_URL=smtp://email-smtp.us-east-1.amazonaws.com:587?encryption=tls&username=YOUR_SES_USERNAME&password=YOUR_SES_PASSWORD

Use the same technique for other mail services, as most of the time there is nothing more to it than configuring an SMTP endpoint.

How to Work with Emails during Development

When developing an application which sends email, you will often not want to actually send the email to the specified recipient during development. If you are using the SwiftmailerBundle with Symfony, you can achieve this through configuration settings without having to make any changes to your application's code at all. There are two main choices when it comes to handling email during development: (a) disabling the sending of email altogether or (b) sending all email to a specific address (with optional exceptions).

Disabling Sending

You can disable sending email by setting the disable_delivery option to true, which is the default value used by Symfony in the test environment (email messages will continue to be sent in the other environments):

  • YAML
    1
    2
    3
    # config/packages/test/swiftmailer.yaml
    swiftmailer:
        disable_delivery: true
    
  • XML
     1
     2
     3
     4
     5
     6
     7
     8
     9
    10
    11
    <!-- config/packages/test/swiftmailer.xml -->
    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
    <container xmlns="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/services"
        xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xmlns:swiftmailer="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/swiftmailer"
        xsi:schemaLocation="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/services
            https://symfony.com/schema/dic/services/services-1.0.xsd
            http://symfony.com/schema/dic/swiftmailer https://symfony.com/schema/dic/swiftmailer/swiftmailer-1.0.xsd">
    
        <swiftmailer:config disable-delivery="true"/>
    </container>
    
  • PHP
    1
    2
    3
    4
    // config/packages/test/swiftmailer.php
    $container->loadFromExtension('swiftmailer', [
        'disable_delivery' => "true",
    ]);
    

Sending to a Specified Address(es)

You can also choose to have all email sent to a specific address or a list of addresses, instead of the address actually specified when sending the message. This can be done via the delivery_addresses option:

  • YAML
    1
    2
    3
    # config/packages/dev/swiftmailer.yaml
    swiftmailer:
        delivery_addresses: ['[email protected]']
    
  • XML
     1
     2
     3
     4
     5
     6
     7
     8
     9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    <!-- config/packages/dev/swiftmailer.xml -->
    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
    <container xmlns="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/services"
        xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xmlns:swiftmailer="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/swiftmailer"
        xsi:schemaLocation="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/services
            https://symfony.com/schema/dic/services/services-1.0.xsd
            http://symfony.com/schema/dic/swiftmailer
            https://symfony.com/schema/dic/swiftmailer/swiftmailer-1.0.xsd">
    
        <swiftmailer:config>
            <swiftmailer:delivery-address>[email protected]</swiftmailer:delivery-address>
        </swiftmailer:config>
    </container>
    
  • PHP
    1
    2
    3
    4
    // config/packages/dev/swiftmailer.php
    $container->loadFromExtension('swiftmailer', [
        'delivery_addresses' => ['[email protected]'],
    ]);
    

Now, suppose you're sending an email to recipient@example.com in a controller:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
public function index($name, \Swift_Mailer $mailer)
{
    $message = (new \Swift_Message('Hello Email'))
        ->setFrom('[email protected]')
        ->setTo('[email protected]')
        ->setBody(
            $this->renderView(
                // templates/hello/email.txt.twig
                'hello/email.txt.twig',
                ['name' => $name]
            )
        )
    ;
    $mailer->send($message);

    return $this->render(...);
}

In the dev environment, the email will instead be sent to dev@example.com. Swift Mailer will add an extra header to the email, X-Swift-To, containing the replaced address, so you can still see who it would have been sent to.

Note

In addition to the to addresses, this will also stop the email being sent to any CC and BCC addresses set for it. Swift Mailer will add additional headers to the email with the overridden addresses in them. These are X-Swift-Cc and X-Swift-Bcc for the CC and BCC addresses respectively.

Sending to a Specified Address but with Exceptions

Suppose you want to have all email redirected to a specific address, (like in the above scenario to dev@example.com). But then you may want email sent to some specific email addresses to go through after all, and not be redirected (even if it is in the dev environment). This can be done by adding the delivery_whitelist option:

  • YAML
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    # config/packages/dev/swiftmailer.yaml
    swiftmailer:
        delivery_addresses: ['[email protected]']
        delivery_whitelist:
            # all email addresses matching these regexes will be delivered
            # like normal, as well as being sent to [email protected]
            - '/@specialdomain\.com$/'
            - '/^[email protected]\.com$/'
    
  • XML
     1
     2
     3
     4
     5
     6
     7
     8
     9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    15
    16
    17
    18
    <!-- config/packages/dev/swiftmailer.xml -->
    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
    <container xmlns="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/services"
        xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xmlns:swiftmailer="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/swiftmailer"
        xsi:schemaLocation="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/services
            https://symfony.com/schema/dic/services/services-1.0.xsd
            http://symfony.com/schema/dic/swiftmailer
            https://symfony.com/schema/dic/swiftmailer/swiftmailer-1.0.xsd">
    
        <swiftmailer:config>
            <!-- all email addresses matching these regexes will be delivered
                 like normal, as well as being sent to [email protected] -->
            <swiftmailer:delivery-whitelist-pattern>/@specialdomain\.com$/</swiftmailer:delivery-whitelist-pattern>
            <swiftmailer:delivery-whitelist-pattern>/^[email protected]\.com$/</swiftmailer:delivery-whitelist-pattern>
            <swiftmailer:delivery-address>[email protected]</swiftmailer:delivery-address>
        </swiftmailer:config>
    </container>
    
  • PHP
     1
     2
     3
     4
     5
     6
     7
     8
     9
    10
    // config/packages/dev/swiftmailer.php
    $container->loadFromExtension('swiftmailer', [
        'delivery_addresses' => ["[email protected]"],
        'delivery_whitelist' => [
            // all email addresses matching these regexes will be delivered
            // like normal, as well as being sent to [email protected]
            '/@specialdomain\.com$/',
            '/^[email protected]\.com$/',
        ],
    ]);
    

In the above example all email messages will be redirected to dev@example.com and messages sent to the admin@mydomain.com address or to any email address belonging to the domain specialdomain.com will also be delivered as normal.

Caution

The delivery_whitelist option is ignored unless the delivery_addresses option is defined.

Viewing from the Web Debug Toolbar

You can view any email sent during a single response when you are in the dev environment using the web debug toolbar. The email icon in the toolbar will show how many emails were sent. If you click it, a report will open showing the details of the sent emails.

If you're sending an email and then immediately redirecting to another page, the web debug toolbar will not display an email icon or a report on the next page.

Instead, you can set the intercept_redirects option to true in the dev environment, which will cause the redirect to stop and allow you to open the report with details of the sent emails.

  • YAML
    1
    2
    3
    # config/packages/dev/web_profiler.yaml
    web_profiler:
        intercept_redirects: true
    
  • XML
     1
     2
     3
     4
     5
     6
     7
     8
     9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    <!-- config/packages/dev/web_profiler.xml -->
    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
    <container xmlns="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/services"
        xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xmlns:webprofiler="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/webprofiler"
        xsi:schemaLocation="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/services
            https://symfony.com/schema/dic/services/services-1.0.xsd
            http://symfony.com/schema/dic/webprofiler
            https://symfony.com/schema/dic/webprofiler/webprofiler-1.0.xsd">
    
        <webprofiler:config
            intercept-redirects="true"
        />
    </container>
    
  • PHP
    1
    2
    3
    4
    // config/packages/dev/web_profiler.php
    $container->loadFromExtension('web_profiler', [
        'intercept_redirects' => 'true',
    ]);
    

Tip

Alternatively, you can open the profiler after the redirect and search by the submit URL used on the previous request (e.g. /contact/handle). The profiler's search feature allows you to load the profiler information for any past requests.

Tip

In addition to the features provided by Symfony, there are applications that can help you test emails during application development, like MailCatcher and MailHog.

How to Spool Emails

The default behavior of the Symfony mailer is to send the email messages immediately. You may, however, want to avoid the performance hit of the communication to the email server, which could cause the user to wait for the next page to load while the email is sending. This can be avoided by choosing to "spool" the emails instead of sending them directly.

This makes the mailer to not attempt to send the email message but instead save it somewhere such as a file. Another process can then read from the spool and take care of sending the emails in the spool. Currently only spooling to file or memory is supported.

Spool Using Memory

When you use spooling to store the emails to memory, they will get sent right before the kernel terminates. This means the email only gets sent if the whole request got executed without any unhandled exception or any errors. To configure this spool, use the following configuration:

  • YAML
    1
    2
    3
    4
    # config/packages/swiftmailer.yaml
    swiftmailer:
        # ...
        spool: { type: memory }
    
  • XML
     1
     2
     3
     4
     5
     6
     7
     8
     9
    10
    11
    12
    <!-- config/packages/swiftmailer.xml -->
    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
    <container xmlns="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/services"
        xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xmlns:swiftmailer="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/swiftmailer"
        xsi:schemaLocation="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/services https://symfony.com/schema/dic/services/services-1.0.xsd
            http://symfony.com/schema/dic/swiftmailer https://symfony.com/schema/dic/swiftmailer/swiftmailer-1.0.xsd">
    
        <swiftmailer:config>
            <swiftmailer:spool type="memory"/>
        </swiftmailer:config>
    </container>
    
  • PHP
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    // config/packages/swiftmailer.php
    $container->loadFromExtension('swiftmailer', [
        // ...
        'spool' => ['type' => 'memory'],
    ]);
    

Spool Using Files

When you use the filesystem for spooling, Symfony creates a folder in the given path for each mail service (e.g. "default" for the default service). This folder will contain files for each email in the spool. So make sure this directory is writable by Symfony (or your webserver/php)!

In order to use the spool with files, use the following configuration:

  • YAML
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    # config/packages/swiftmailer.yaml
    swiftmailer:
        # ...
        spool:
            type: file
            path: /path/to/spooldir
    
  • XML
     1
     2
     3
     4
     5
     6
     7
     8
     9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    15
    16
    <!-- config/packages/swiftmailer.xml -->
    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
    <container xmlns="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/services"
        xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xmlns:swiftmailer="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/swiftmailer"
        xsi:schemaLocation="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/services
            https://symfony.com/schema/dic/services/services-1.0.xsd
            http://symfony.com/schema/dic/swiftmailer https://symfony.com/schema/dic/swiftmailer/swiftmailer-1.0.xsd">
    
        <swiftmailer:config>
            <swiftmailer:spool
                type="file"
                path="/path/to/spooldir"
            />
        </swiftmailer:config>
    </container>
    
  • PHP
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
    // config/packages/swiftmailer.php
    $container->loadFromExtension('swiftmailer', [
        // ...
    
        'spool' => [
            'type' => 'file',
            'path' => '/path/to/spooldir',
        ],
    ]);
    

Tip

If you want to store the spool somewhere with your project directory, remember that you can use the %kernel.project_dir% parameter to reference the project's root:

1
path: '%kernel.project_dir%/var/spool'

Now, when your app sends an email, it will not actually be sent but instead added to the spool. Sending the messages from the spool is done separately. There is a console command to send the messages in the spool:

1
$ APP_ENV=prod php bin/console swiftmailer:spool:send

It has an option to limit the number of messages to be sent:

1
$ APP_ENV=prod php bin/console swiftmailer:spool:send --message-limit=10

You can also set the time limit in seconds:

1
$ APP_ENV=prod php bin/console swiftmailer:spool:send --time-limit=10

In practice you will not want to run this manually. Instead, the console command should be triggered by a cron job or scheduled task and run at a regular interval.

Caution

When you create a message with SwiftMailer, it generates a Swift_Message class. If the swiftmailer service is lazy loaded, it generates instead a proxy class named Swift_Message_<someRandomCharacters>.

If you use the memory spool, this change is transparent and has no impact. But when using the filesystem spool, the message class is serialized in a file with the randomized class name. The problem is that this random class name changes on every cache clear. So if you send a mail and then you clear the cache, the message will not be unserializable.

On the next execution of swiftmailer:spool:send an error will raise because the class Swift_Message_<someRandomCharacters> doesn't exist (anymore).

The solutions are either to use the memory spool or to load the swiftmailer service without the lazy option (see Lazy Services).

How to Test that an Email is Sent in a Functional Test

Sending emails with Symfony is pretty straightforward thanks to the SwiftmailerBundle, which leverages the power of the Swift Mailer library.

To functionally test that an email was sent, and even assert the email subject, content or any other headers, you can use the Symfony Profiler.

Start with a controller action that sends an email:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
public function sendEmail($name, \Swift_Mailer $mailer)
{
    $message = (new \Swift_Message('Hello Email'))
        ->setFrom('[email protected]')
        ->setTo('[email protected]')
        ->setBody('You should see me from the profiler!')
    ;

    $mailer->send($message);

    // ...
}

In your functional test, use the swiftmailer collector on the profiler to get information about the messages sent on the previous request:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
// tests/Controller/MailControllerTest.php
namespace App\Tests\Controller;

use Symfony\Bundle\FrameworkBundle\Test\WebTestCase;

class MailControllerTest extends WebTestCase
{
    public function testMailIsSentAndContentIsOk()
    {
        $client = static::createClient();

        // enables the profiler for the next request (it does nothing if the profiler is not available)
        $client->enableProfiler();

        $crawler = $client->request('POST', '/path/to/above/action');

        $mailCollector = $client->getProfile()->getCollector('swiftmailer');

        // checks that an email was sent
        $this->assertSame(1, $mailCollector->getMessageCount());

        $collectedMessages = $mailCollector->getMessages();
        $message = $collectedMessages[0];

        // Asserting email data
        $this->assertInstanceOf('Swift_Message', $message);
        $this->assertSame('Hello Email', $message->getSubject());
        $this->assertSame('[email protected]', key($message->getFrom()));
        $this->assertSame('[email protected]', key($message->getTo()));
        $this->assertSame(
            'You should see me from the profiler!',
            $message->getBody()
        );
    }
}

Troubleshooting

Problem: The Collector Object Is null

The email collector is only available when the profiler is enabled and collects information, as explained in How to Use the Profiler in a Functional Test.

Problem: The Collector Doesn't Contain the Email

If a redirection is performed after sending the email (for example when you send an email after a form is processed and before redirecting to another page), make sure that the test client doesn't follow the redirects, as explained in Testing. Otherwise, the collector will contain the information of the redirected page and the email won't be accessible.

This work, including the code samples, is licensed under a Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 license.