DoctrineFixturesBundle

3.1 version
Maintained

DoctrineFixturesBundle

Fixtures are used to load a “fake” set of data into a database that can then be used for testing or to help give you some interesting data while you’re developing your application.

This bundle is compatible with any database supported by Doctrine ORM (MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite, etc.). If you are using MongoDB, you must use DoctrineMongoDBBundle instead.

Installation

In Symfony 4 or higher applications that use Symfony Flex, open a command console, enter your project directory and run the following command:

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$ composer require --dev orm-fixtures

Starting from Symfony 4.0, Flex should be used by default and register the bundle for you, and in that case you can skip to the next section and start writing fixtures.

In Symfony 3 applications (or when not using Symfony Flex), run this other command instead:

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$ composer require --dev doctrine/doctrine-fixtures-bundle

You will also need to enable the bundle. In Symfony 3 and earlier applications, update the AppKernel class:

// app/AppKernel.php

// ...
// registerBundles()
if (in_array($this->getEnvironment(), ['dev', 'test'], true)) {
    // ...
    $bundles[] = new Doctrine\Bundle\FixturesBundle\DoctrineFixturesBundle();
}

Writing Fixtures

Data fixtures are PHP classes where you create objects and persist them to the database.

Imagine that you want to add some Product objects to your database. No problem! Create a fixtures class and start adding products:

// src/DataFixtures/AppFixtures.php
namespace App\DataFixtures;

use App\Entity\Product;
use Doctrine\Bundle\FixturesBundle\Fixture;
use Doctrine\Persistence\ObjectManager;

class AppFixtures extends Fixture
{
    public function load(ObjectManager $manager)
    {
        // create 20 products! Bam!
        for ($i = 0; $i < 20; $i++) {
            $product = new Product();
            $product->setName('product '.$i);
            $product->setPrice(mt_rand(10, 100));
            $manager->persist($product);
        }

        $manager->flush();
    }
}

Tip

You can also create multiple fixtures classes. See Splitting Fixtures into Separate Files.

Loading Fixtures

Once your fixtures have been written, load them by executing this command:

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# when using the ORM
$ php bin/console doctrine:fixtures:load

Caution

By default the load command purges the database, removing all data from every table. To append your fixtures’ data add the --append option.

This command looks for all services tagged with doctrine.fixture.orm. If you’re using the default service configuration, any class that implements ORMFixtureInterface (for example, those extending from Fixture) will automatically be registered with this tag.

To see other options for the command, run:

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$ php bin/console doctrine:fixtures:load --help

Accessing Services from the Fixtures

In some cases you may need to access your application’s services inside a fixtures class. No problem! Your fixtures class is a service, so you can use normal dependency injection:

// src/DataFixtures/AppFixtures.php
use Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Encoder\UserPasswordEncoderInterface;

class AppFixtures extends Fixture
{
    private $encoder;

    public function __construct(UserPasswordEncoderInterface $encoder)
    {
        $this->encoder = $encoder;
    }

    // ...
    public function load(ObjectManager $manager)
    {
        $user = new User();
        $user->setUsername('admin');

        $password = $this->encoder->encodePassword($user, 'pass_1234');
        $user->setPassword($password);

        $manager->persist($user);
        $manager->flush();
    }
}

Splitting Fixtures into Separate Files

In most applications, creating all your fixtures in just one class is fine. This class may end up being a bit long, but it’s worth it because having one file helps keeping things simple.

If you do decide to split your fixtures into separate files, Symfony helps you solve the two most common issues: sharing objects between fixtures and loading the fixtures in order.

Sharing Objects between Fixtures

When using multiple fixtures files, you can reuse PHP objects across different files thanks to the object references. Use the addReference() method to give a name to any object and then, use the getReference() method to get the exact same object via its name:

// src/DataFixtures/UserFixtures.php
// ...
class UserFixtures extends Fixture
{
    public const ADMIN_USER_REFERENCE = 'admin-user';

    public function load(ObjectManager $manager)
    {
        $userAdmin = new User('admin', 'pass_1234');
        $manager->persist($userAdmin);
        $manager->flush();

        // other fixtures can get this object using the UserFixtures::ADMIN_USER_REFERENCE constant
        $this->addReference(self::ADMIN_USER_REFERENCE, $userAdmin);
    }
}

// src/DataFixtures/GroupFixtures.php
// ...
class GroupFixtures extends Fixture
{
    public function load(ObjectManager $manager)
    {
        $userGroup = new Group('administrators');
        // this reference returns the User object created in UserFixtures
        $userGroup->addUser($this->getReference(UserFixtures::ADMIN_USER_REFERENCE));

        $manager->persist($userGroup);
        $manager->flush();
    }
}

The only caveat of using references is that fixtures need to be loaded in a certain order (in this example, if the Group fixtures are load before the User fixtures, you’ll see an error). By default Doctrine loads the fixture files in alphabetical order, but you can control their order as explained in the next section.

Loading the Fixture Files in Order

Instead of defining the exact order in which all fixture files must be loaded, Doctrine uses a smarter approach to ensure that some fixtures are loaded before others. Implement the DependentFixtureInterface and add a new getDependencies() method to your fixtures class. This will return an array of the fixture classes that must be loaded before this one:

// src/DataFixtures/UserFixtures.php
namespace App\DataFixtures;

// ...
class UserFixtures extends Fixture
{
    public function load(ObjectManager $manager)
    {
        // ...
    }
}

// src/DataFixtures/GroupFixtures.php
namespace App\DataFixtures;
// ...
use App\DataFixtures\UserFixtures;
use Doctrine\Common\DataFixtures\DependentFixtureInterface;

class GroupFixtures extends Fixture implements DependentFixtureInterface
{
    public function load(ObjectManager $manager)
    {
        // ...
    }

    public function getDependencies()
    {
        return array(
            UserFixtures::class,
        );
    }
}

Fixture Groups: Only Executing Some Fixtures

By default, all of your fixture classes are executed. If you only want to execute some of your fixture classes, you can organize them into groups.

The simplest way to organize a fixture class into a group is to make your fixture implement FixtureGroupInterface:

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// src/DataFixtures/UserFixtures.php

+ use Doctrine\Bundle\FixturesBundle\FixtureGroupInterface;

- class UserFixtures extends Fixture
+ class UserFixtures extends Fixture implements FixtureGroupInterface
{
    // ...

+     public static function getGroups(): array
+     {
+         return ['group1', 'group2'];
+     }
}

To execute all of your fixtures for a given group, pass the --group option:

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$ php bin/console doctrine:fixtures:load --group=group1

# or to execute multiple groups
$ php bin/console doctrine:fixtures:load --group=group1 --group=group2

Alternatively, instead of implementing the FixtureGroupInterface, you can also tag your service with doctrine.fixture.orm and add an extra group option set to a group your fixture should belong to.

Regardless of groups defined in the fixture or the service definition, the fixture loader always adds the short name of the class as a separate group so you can load a single fixture at a time. In the example above, you can load the fixture using the UserFixtures group:

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$ php bin/console doctrine:fixtures:load --group=UserFixtures

Specifying purging behavior

By default all previously existing data is purged using DELETE FROM table statements. If you prefer to use TRUNCATE table statements for purging, use --purge-with-truncate.

If you want to exclude a set of tables from being purged, e.g. because your schema comes with pre-populated, semi-static data, pass the option --purge-exclusions. Specify --purge-exclusions multiple times to exclude multiple tables.

You can also customize purging behavior significantly more and implement a custom purger plus a custom purger factory:

// src/Purger/CustomPurger.php
namespace App\Purger;

use Doctrine\Common\DataFixtures\Purger\PurgerInterface;

// ...
class CustomPurger implements PurgerInterface
{
    public function purge() : void
    {
        // ...
    }
}

// src/Purger/CustomPurgerFactory.php
namespace App\Purger;
// ...
use Doctrine\Bundle\FixturesBundle\Purger\PurgerFactory;

class CustomPurgerFactory implements PurgerFactory
{
    public function createForEntityManager(?string $emName, EntityManagerInterface $em, array $excluded = [], bool $purgeWithTruncate = false) : PurgerInterface;
    {
        return new CustomPurger($em);
    }
}

The next step is to register our custom purger factory and specify its alias.

  • YAML
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    # config/services.yaml
    services:
        App\Purger\CustomPurgerFactory:
            tags:
                - { name: 'doctrine.fixtures.purger_factory', alias: 'my_purger' }
    
  • XML
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    <!-- config/services.xml -->
    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
    <container xmlns="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/services"
        xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xsi:schemaLocation="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/services
            https://symfony.com/schema/dic/services/services-1.0.xsd">
    
        <services>
            <service id="App\Purger\CustomPurgerFactory">
                <tag name="doctrine.fixtures.purger_factory" alias="my_purger"/>
            </service>
        </services>
    </container>
    
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    // config/services.php
    namespace Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\Loader\Configurator;
    
    use App\Purger\CustomerPurgerFactory;
    
    return function(ContainerConfigurator $configurator) : void {
        $services = $configurator->services();
    
        $services->set(CustomerPurgerFactory::class)
            ->tag('doctrine.fixtures.purger_factory', ['alias' => 'my_purger'])
        ;
    };
    

With the --purger option we can now specify to use my_purger instead of the default purger.

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$ php bin/console doctrine:fixtures:load --purger=my_purger

This work, including the code samples, is licensed under a Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 license.